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national II 



second in a series of 

national competitive exhibitions for 

Designer-Craftsmen in Glass 

Organized and first shown by 


October 20-November 17, 1968 

a selection circulated for exhibition tour by 

The Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibition Service 



Glass is one of the oldest crafts. Examples 
of it have been found in tombs of ancient 
Egypt, and in the buried cities of Asia 
Minor. Its origin has been lost in time. 
Shortly before the birth of Christ a major 
technological breakthrough took place 
when it was found that molten glass could 
be blown and shaped at the end of a metal 
pipe. Previously, it had been formed by 
casting into molds or shaped about small 
sand cores. 

For many centuries, glass remained a 
precious commodity until after the Indus- 
trial Revolution when it became an item of 
necessity rather than an object of luxury. 
Late in the nineteenth century a method 
was invented to produce glass mechani- 
cally. Today glass has become so common 
that we are hardly aware of it, and seldom 
remember that its special properties once 
placed it in a class with the most precious 
of jewels and metal-work. 

However, not all modern glass is the 
creature of machines. A few factories have 
kept alive the tradition of hand-blown 
wares and an even fewer number are dis- 
tinguished by the high quality of their 
products. But these factories continue to 

operate on the traditional pattern where 
glass is conceived by the designer at the 
drawing board and executed by workers at 
the factory. 

In 1962 an innovative effort was begun 
at The Toledo Museum of Art to reassert 
the special properties of glass which could 
be created by a designer-craftsman. The 
qualifications of this special kind of artist 
are such that, like the potter, he designs in 
the act of creating his work. 

Under the auspices of Toledo's Museum, 
ceramics craftsman Harvey Littleton, and 
Dominick Labino, chief of research at 
Johns-Manville Fiber Glass Corporation, 
began the first attempts to find a glass for- 
mula suitable to the conditions of studio 
or classroom. They were joined by Harvey 
Leafgreen, a retired Libbey Glass Company 
blower, in this initial experiment. Since this 
pioneering project of 1962, when the first 
furnaces were built in a garage on the Mu- 
seum grounds, the medium of glass has 
been recognized by craftsmen and fost- 
ered by their associations, as well as by 
many educational institutions. Interest is 
now nationwide. With the aid of Labino 
and Littleton, portable glass working 

Joel Philip Myers 
"Bottle Boogie" 

equipment was demonstrated in New York 
under the auspices of the American Crafts- 
men's Council. The original Museum pro- 
ject has expanded to a continuing series of 
seminar- workshops here, which have 
counterparts elsewhere in the country 
often run by craftsmen who have had 
Toledo experience. Glassworking is now 
taught in many universities and art schools 
throughout the country, notably in Ohio, 
Wisconsin, California and New York. The 
movement has had an even wider impact. 
Individual craftsmen and schools in Great 
Britain and on the Continent have bene- 
fited from the American experience, de- 
veloping glass programs of their own. 

In 1966 this Museum held the first 
Toledo Glass National Exhibition to survey 
the level of creative glass craftsmanship. 
The exhibition was conceived as a further 
stimulus to American artists. A jury selected 
the mostcompetentand imaginative pieces 
to exhibit. It also awarded $1,000 as an en- 
couragement to the artists. In 1966 the jury 
selected 43 of 48 entrants. This year, in 
1968, the jury selected 57 out of 68 en- 
trants and chose 67 of the best pieces for 
a special exhibition to be circulated by the 
Smithsonian Institution. 

The second Toledo Glass National Exhi- 
bition reveals not only a wider interest in 
glass among craftsmen with half again as 
many entrants, but the works themselves 
display an assurance in handling and an 
imaginative use of material far beyond that 
shown in the first. 

Special thanks go to the jury which chose 
this second Toledo Glass National: Tracy 
Atkinson, Director of the Milwaukee Art 
Center; Edgar Kaufmann, Jr., lecturer and 
critic, Columbia University; and Paul N. 
Perrot, Director, Corning Museum of Glass. 
In general, the jury sought examples of 
continued exploration and experimenta- 
tion in this revival which is still in its 
infancy. The jurors' individual statements 

Toledo's first exhibition in 1966 revealed 
that the creative glass movement had life, 
while the second exhibition affirms the 
movement's capacity for growth. While 
technological experiment will undoubted- 
ly continue, it is in the realm of imaginative 
creation that the future of glass craftsman- 
ship now lies. 

Otto Wittmann 


The Toledo Museum of Art 

Andre G. Billed 

Brown enamel & air trap Cylinder 

Andre C. Billed 

Form with dragged enamel design 


This second national competition has con- 
firmed that glass has become an accepted 
medium of individual expression. The 
number of entrants and the variety of tech- 
niques used are evidence that practical 
problems of composition and handling 
have been successfully overcome, thus de- 
nying once and for all that creation in glass 
was impossible outside an industrial 

The strong influence of those few artists 
who were primarily responsible for the 
growth of the studio movement is still 
manifested in a slightly repetitive form 

Several significant differences can be ob- 
served in comparing this year's entries with 
previous ones: over-all a- greater sureness 
and directness in the handling of forms, a 
greater boldness in combining materials 
and textures (sometimes, to this Juror, creat- 
ing rather dubious results) and a freer re- 
jection of utility as a raison d'etre. 

Accident is still a salient feature, but in 
many cases it appears willfully contrived. 
Traditional forms are not rejected, but 
when used are often spontaneous expres- 
sions ratherthan conscious historicisms. 

In summary — an exciting movement is 
coming of age — comparable in some ways 
to the first steps of the Art Nouveau or of 
the vital years of exploration conducted by 
Maurice Marinot and his few contempo- 

The coming years with the increasing 
maturity of the established artists and the 
growing number of younger ones who will 
be turning to glass as their medium, should 
vindicate the Toledo Museum's wisdom in 
taking a major roll in sponsoring the studio 
movement in this country. 

Paul N. Perrot, 


Corning Museum of Glass 

Tom McGlauchlin 

Blue & lavender streaked Vase with bubbles pulled 

out from walls 

I was especially interested in the kind of 
revivalism of specific earlier forms of glass 
which appeared among the entries and 
which is reflected among the accepted 
pieces. This seems to me a new trend. I was 
also impressed by the high quality of the 
best of the pieces in the "funk" direction. 
It seems to me that glass lends itself well to 
the eccentric kind of form involved in this 
— perhaps part of the impetus for the revi- 
val of the medium at a time when interest 
in Art Nouveau was also being re-born. 

Tracy Atkinson 

Director, Milwaukee Art Center 

The ease with which the jury was able to 
select the exhibition, the prize winners 
and the commendations indicates the ex- 
cellence of the work submitted. The 
considerable differences of critical inter- 
pretations behind these selections under- 
line once again the value of work over 
words in the visual arts. While admiring the 
works of these craftsmen, I hope they will 
accelerate their explorations of fuller 
expressions and unorthodox techniques. 

Edgar ]. Kaufmann, Jr. 
Designer, Critic, Lecturer 
Columbia University 



Dominick Labino 
Paperweight Vase 

Dominick Labino 

"Tropical Leaves" — silver glass overlay 


The Toledo Museum of Art presented ten 
Jury Awards and purchased six pieces from 
the exhibition. All jury Awards and Com- 
mendations are illustrated. Catalogue 
descriptions were provided by the crafts- 
men. Entries marked with a star will be 
circulated by the Smithsonian Institution 
Traveling Exhibition Service. 

Robert Barber 

Madison, Wisconsin 

Blue Bottle with bubbles 
• Reddish Bottle with 2 silver prunts 

jury Award 

Red Bottle with folded layers of glass 

Jack Brewer 

St. Petersburg, Florida 

Bowl, clear cobalt 

Bottle, amber steamed bubble 
• Clear Bottle with amber streak 

Clear Bottle with red & black design 

Andre G. Billed 

Alfred, New York 

* Brown enamel & air trap Cylinder 
Jury Award 

Toledo Museum of Art Purchase Award 
Red enamel Sphere 
Blue-green Form with interior lacing 
Fumed Vase with nipped pattern 

• Form with dragged enamel design 
jury Award 

Fred Budenaers 

Eureka, California 

Free Form, olive green 

* Pot, clear green tint 

Douglas Dendel 

Warren, Michigan 
Nile Green Vase 

* Heavy Amber Vase 

Michael Boylen 

West Burke, Vermont 

• Blue Bottle 

• Pod shape Bottle 
Brown Bud Vase 

C. Fritz Dreisbach 

Toledo, Ohio 
Set of four Steins 

* Pink Vase 

jury Commendation 

• Green rock Form 


Marvin B. Lipofsky 

Glass Form, copper blue lustre, sandblasted, 

14 dots, copper plated arm, peace now 

Marvin B. Lipofsky 

Glass Form, copper plated arm, flocked purple, 

no more war 


Alice L. Duncan 

Toledo, Ohio 

Blue green Bottle 
* Smoke Bottle 

David Porter Hatch 

San Jose, California 

Green, red, blue Vase 
* Color inlay obsidian Vase 

Albert A. Eisentraut 

Oakland, California 

* Green tall Form 

Patricia Esch 

Arvada, Colorado 

* Collapsed Form, yellow-green 
Pairof Vases, purple & blue 

Robert C. Florian 

Bervvyn, Illinois 

* Etched Bramble Pot 

Two color Vase, amethyst with 

blue swirls 


Robert C. Fritz 

San Jose, California 

Red violet Vase copper red mosaic 

* Windows, inner form, faceted 

Gene Gant 

Kent, Ohio 

* Round Shape, copper colored top 

Audrey Handler 

Madison, Wisconsin 

* Tall blue Vase with pedal design 
Blue Bottle Form 

Robert D. Held 

Penland, North Carolina 

* Light green globular Bottle 

* Amber steamed Form 

C. Horan 

Honolulu, Hawaii 

* Blue Form with cut foot 
Form with knobs & cut top 

J. L. Hysong 

Monterey, California 

* Small necked Squat Bottle 

jack Ink 

Chesterland, Ohio 

* Bowl 

Kent F. Ipsen 

Northbrook, Illinois 

Bottle, blue fumed 
• Jar, blue-silver specks 

Jury Commendation 

Jar, red with applique 

Jar, amber with blown appliques 


.**; r* ; .; 

Fred Marcus 

Faceted & polished Vase 


Ellen Jacobs 

New York, New York 

• Bottle 

Roland Jahn 

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 
Pouch Vase, blue green 

• Round Vase, blue green, fumed 
jury Commendation 

Don Johns 

Elgin, Illinois 

• Blue Bottle with copper lustre 

• Blue & green Bottle 

Blue Bottle with additions 

Gilbert Johnson 

Highland Park, Michigan 

Light green Pot with red markings 

• Light amber Dish with red spots 

Gene Kangas 

Chapel Hill, North Carolina 

• Small Sphere 
Carnival Vase 

Michael D. Kraatz 

Farmington, Michigan 

• Cast Wall Hanging 
Free blown Forms 

Frank L. Kulasiewicz 

Las Cruces, New Mexico 

• Cased amber free form Plate 

Silver & cobalt Bottle with trailed design 

Dominick Labino 

Grand Rapids, Ohio 

* Paperweight Vase 
Jury Commendation 
Air Sculpture 

* Gold Ruby Glass Bowl 
jury Award 

* "Tropical Leaves" — silver glass overlay 
jury Award 

Toledo Museum of Art 
Purchase Award 

Rodger Lang 

Cleveland, Ohio 

* Dark Bottle with facets and fumed 

silver surface 

Marvin B. Lipofsky 

Berkeley, California 

* Glass Form, copper plated arm, flocked 
purple, no more war 

jury Award 

* Glass Form, copper blue lustre, sand- 
blasted, 14 dots, copper plated arm, 
peace now 

jury Award 

Toledo Museum of Art 
Purchase Award 


Roland jahn 

Round Vase, blue green fumed 

C. Fritz Dreisbach 
Pink Vase 

Sarah Rudin 
Round Form 


Judith Loyd 

Detroit, Michigan 

* Round 

and Divided 

Fred Lucero 

Chico, California 

• Blue Bottle with impressions 
Purple Bottle with double top 
Green Vase with impressions 

Fred Marcus 

Champaign, Illinois 

• Bottle Form 

• Urn No. 3, ruby red 

• Faceted & polished Vase 
jury Award 

Toledo Museum of Art Purchase Award 

Silver Bottle 

Silver Bottle with cased lustre 

Richard Marquis 

Berkeley, California 

* Two Bottles 

Set of 3 Snuff Bottles 

Gary Paul McCloy 

Dayton, Ohio 

* Tunisia 

Earl McCutchen 

Athens, Georgia 

* Green Bottle 
Green Bottle 

Tom McGlauchlin 

Mt. Vernon, Iowa 

Pink iridescent Vase with volutes 

Pink Vase with 6 opened bubbles in wall 

• Blue & lavender streaked Vase with 
bubbles pulled outfrom walls 
jury Award 

• Short brown Vase 

Alan L. Melis 

Toledo, Ohio 
Blue Bottle 

• Green Bowl 
Red Bowl 

Steven Mildwoff 

Bronxville, New York 

• Chunk Vase 

Joel Philip Myers 

Milton, West Virginia 

• Red Egg 

Toledo Museum of Art Purchase Award 

• "Bottle Boogie" 
]ury Award 

Toledo Museum of Art Purchase Award 
Short Yellow John 

Robert E. Naess 
Berkeley, California 
Clear Jar 

Henry G. Nixon 

Berkeley, California 

• Small Urn 


Dominick Labino 
Gold Ruby Glass Bowl 


John Nygren 

Wilmington, North Carolina 
Gathered Bottle 
Round Bottle with red 

• Small Bottle with red 

Mark C. Peiser 

Penland, North Carolina 
Yellow iridescent Pot 
Green iridescent Pot 

• Amber iridescent Pot 

Eriks Rudans 

Madison, Wisconsin 
Vase Form 

• Steam Bubble 

Sarah Rudin 

Flushing, New York 

• Round Form 

Jury Commendation 

George Sacco 

Lubbock, Texas 

•k Green blue & amber Vase 

jack A. Schmidt 

Toledo, Ohio 

• Bottle 

• Blue Vase with silver neck 

• Vase with tooled surface 

Norman Schulman 

Providence, Rhode Island 
Blue green Vase with prunts 

• PaperWeight 

L. Roger Sell 

Alfred, New York 

• Frosted Vase with prunts 

Rick Strini 

Santa Clara, California 
Light green Form 

• Blue Form with 3 bubbles inside 

James L. Tanner 

Mankato, Minnesota 
Flat metallic Bottle 

• Ruby-silver Bottle 

Jim Wayne 

Pasadena, California 

• Silver Form 

Blue Sphere with inner form 
Healthways no Sweat Workout 

Sandra Wenk 

• Large green-amber Drop 
Spouted Sphere, red irradiance 

Kent F. Ipsen 

Jar, blue-silver specks 

Robert Barber 

Reddish Bottle with 2 silver prunts